THE GRAPES OF WRATH
DIRECTED BY JOHN FORD
PRODUCED BY DARRYL. F. ZANUCK
TWENTIETH CENTURY FOX
Information from IMDb
Set in the Thirties, Oklahoma is a dustbowl.
Tom Joad returns to his home after a jail sentence
to find his family kicked out of their farm due to forecloseure.
He catches up with them on his Uncles farm,
and joins them the next day as they head for California and a new life.
After terrible trials en route they become little more than slave labor.
However Tom and his family refuse to knuckle under.
Based on the John Steinbeck novel.
Written by ethanedwards
Henry Fonda ... Tom Joad
Jane Darwell ... Ma Joad
John Carradine ... Casy
Charley Grapewin ... Grandpa
Dorris Bowdon ... Rose of Sharon
Russell Simpson ... Pa Joad
O.Z. Whitehead ... Al
John Qualen ... Muley
Eddie Quillan ... Connie
Zeffie Tilbury ... Grandma
Frank Sully ... Noah
Frank Darien ... Uncle John
Darryl Hickman ... Winfield
Shirley Mills ... Ruth Joad
Roger Imhof ... Thomas
Grant Mitchell ... Caretaker
Charles D. Brown ... Wilkie
John Arledge ... Davis
Ward Bond ... Policeman
Harry Tyler ... Bert
William Pawley ... Bill
Charles Tannen ... Joe
Selmer Jackson ... Inspection Officer (as Selmar Jackson)
Charles Middleton ... Leader
Eddy Waller ... Proprietor (as Eddie Waller)
Paul Guilfoyle ... Floyd
David Hughes ... Frank
Cliff Clark ... City Man
Joe Sawyer ... Bookkeeper (as Joseph Sawyer)
Frank Faylen ... Tim
Adrian Morris ... Agent
Hollis Jewell ... Muley's Son
Robert Homans ... Spencer
Irving Bacon ... Driver
Kitty McHugh ... Mae
Leon Brace ... Migrant
Henry Brahe ... Migrant
Scotty Brown ... Migrant
Cal Cohen ... Migrant
Cecil Cook ... Migrant
Helen Dean ... Migrant
Billy Elmer ... Migrant
Sidney Hayes ... Migrant
E.J. Kaspar ... Migrant
L.F. O'Connor ... Migrant
Walton Pindon ... Migrant
Wally Albright ... Boy who bragged of eating chicken (uncredited)
Erville Alderson ... Arkansas storekeeper (uncredited)
Josephine Allen ... Migrant (uncredited)
Frank Atkinson ... Migrant (uncredited)
Arthur Aylesworth ... Father (uncredited)
Trevor Bardette ... Jule, bouncer at dance (uncredited)
John Binns ... Migrant (uncredited)
Joe Bordeaux ... Migrant (uncredited)
George P. Breakston ... Boy (uncredited)
Buster Brodie ... Migrant (uncredited)
Hal Budlong ... Migrant (uncredited)
Nora Bush ... Migrant (uncredited)
Russ Clark ... Guard (uncredited)
Shirley Coates ... Girl in migrant camp (uncredited)
Harry Cording ... Deputy (uncredited)
Jim Corey ... Buck Jackson, witness at dance (uncredited)
Gino Corrado ... Chef (uncredited)
Delmar Costello ... Migrant (uncredited)
Jane Crowley ... Migrant (uncredited)
W.H. Davis ... Migrant (uncredited)
John Dilson ... Bookseller (uncredited)
Lillian Drew ... Migrant (uncredited)
Ralph Dunn ... Deputy (uncredited)
Thornton Edwards ... Motorcycle cop (uncredited)
Pat Flaherty ... Deputy (uncredited)
James Flavin ... Guard (uncredited)
Francis Ford ... (unconfirmed) (uncredited)
Emily Gerdes ... Migrant (uncredited)
Tyler Gibson ... Migrant (uncredited)
Barney Gilmore ... Migrant (uncredited)
William Haade ... Deputy with shotgun (uncredited)
Ben Hall ... Gas station attendant in Bakersfield (uncredited)
Dean Hall ... Migrant (uncredited)
Edna Hall ... Migrant (uncredited)
Cliff Herbert ... Migrant (uncredited)
Charles Herzinger ... Migrant (uncredited)
Herbert Heywood ... Gas station attendant (uncredited)
Harry Holden ... Migrant (uncredited)
David Kirkland ... Migrant (uncredited)
Rex Lease ... Cop (uncredited)
Hazel Lollier ... Migrant (uncredited)
Mae Marsh ... Muley's wife (uncredited)
Louis Mason ... Man in camp (uncredited)
Harry Matthews ... Migrant (uncredited)
Scotty Mattraw ... Migrant (uncredited)
Walter McGrail ... Gang leader (uncredited)
Jules Michelson ... Migrant (uncredited)
Walter Miller ... New Mexico border guard (uncredited)
Philip Morris ... Guard (uncredited)
Frank Newburg ... Migrant (uncredited)
Frank O'Connor ... Deputy #1 (uncredited)
George O'Hara ... Clerk (uncredited)
Ted Oliver ... State policeman (uncredited)
Inez Palange ... Woman in camp (uncredited)
Steve Pendleton ... Gas station attendant #2 in Needles (uncredited)
Jack Pennick ... Camp helper (uncredited)
Walter Perry ... Migrant (uncredited)
Rose Plumer ... Migrant (uncredited)
Chauncey Pyle ... Migrant (uncredited)
Bob Reeves ... Deputy (uncredited)
Gladys Rehfeld ... Migrant (uncredited)
Waclaw Rekwart ... Migrant (uncredited)
Dick Rich ... Keene Ranch guard (uncredited)
Gloria Roy ... Waitress (uncredited)
Peggy Ryan ... Hungry girl (uncredited)
Robert Shaw ... Gas station attendant #1 in Needles (uncredited)
Lee Shumway ... Deputy (uncredited)
Georgia Simmons ... Woman (uncredited)
C.B. Steele ... Migrant (uncredited)
Al Stewart ... Migrant (uncredited)
Harry Strang ... Fred, trucker #2 at diner (uncredited)
Paul Sutton ... Deputy (uncredited)
Harry Tenbrook ... Deputy / Troublemaker (uncredited)
Charles Thurston ... Migrant (uncredited)
D.H. Turner ... Migrant (uncredited)
Tom Tyler ... Deputy handcuffing Casy (uncredited)
Pearl Varvalle ... Migrant (uncredited)
Eleanore Vogel ... Migrant (uncredited)
Max Wagner ... Guard (uncredited)
Harry Wallace ... Migrant (uncredited)
John Wallace ... Migrant (uncredited)
Glen Walters ... Woman who gets shot (uncredited)
Jack Walters ... Migrant (uncredited)
Frank Watson ... Migrant (uncredited)
Jim Welch ... Migrant (uncredited)
Charles West ... Migrant (uncredited)
Dan White ... Poor man walking with woman in transient camp (uncredited)
Norman Willis ... Joe, shot at Floyd (uncredited)
Bill Wolfe ... Square-dance caller (uncredited)
Bill Worth ... Migrant (uncredited)
Darryl F. Zanuck ... Himself (archive footage) (uncredited)
Wingate Smith .... (uncredited)
Nunnally Johnson (screenplay)
John Steinbeck (novel "The Grapes of Wrath")
Alfred Newman .... musical director
Danny Borzage .... musician: accordion (uncredited)
Prior to filming, producer Darryl F. Zanuck sent undercover investigators
out to the migrant camps to see if John Steinbeck had been exaggerating
about the squalor and unfair treatment meted out there.
He was horrified to discover that, if anything,
Steinbeck had actually downplayed what went on in the camps.
John Steinbeck loved the movie and said that Henry Fonda as Tom Joad made him "believe my own words".
Henry Fonda kept the hat he wore in the movie for the rest of his life,
until before he passed away in 1982 he gave it to his old friend Jane Withers.
Apparently he and Withers, when she was an 8 year old girl and he a young man,
did a play together before Fonda made movies.
Fonda was so nervous to go onstage that little Jane took his hand,
said a little prayer to ease his nerves, and the two of them became good friends for life.
John Ford banned all makeup and perfume from the set on the grounds
that it was not in keeping with the tone of the picture.
The pro-union stance of the film led to both John Steinbeck and John Ford
being investigated by Congress during the McCarthy "Red Scare" era for alleged pro-Communist leanings.
John Steinbeck was particularly enamored with the performance of Henry Fonda as Tom Joad,
feeling that he perfectly encapsulated everything he wanted to convey with this character.
The two became good friends.
Indeed Fonda did a reading at Steinbeck's funeral.
While filming the Joads' car traveling down the highway,
John Ford wanted to add a shot showing the large number of caravans heading west,
so the film's business manager stopped actual cars making the trek
and paid the drivers five dollars to escort the Joads' jalopy for the cameras.
The production had a fake working title, "Highway 66", so that the shoot of the
controversial novel would not be affected by union problems.
Much of the dire straits portrayed in the film continued during and after the release of the movie.
Noah Joad simply vanishes after the scene of the family swimming in the Colorado River.
In the book, Noah tells Tom he has decided to stay by the river.
In the film, his disappearance is never explained.
Henry Fonda, still struggling to became a big Hollywood star,
tried to avoid being a contract player for 20th Century-Fox
because he wanted the ability to independently choose his own projects
(an increasing number of stars at the time were trying to gain such independence).
But when the much-coveted part of Tom Joad was offered to him,
Fonda hesitantly gave in and signed a contract to work with the studio for seven years
because he knew it would be the role of a lifetime.
Banks and the large farming corporations that controlled most California farms
were not keen on the original novel (it was banned in some states and in
several counties in California, and the book was not carried in the municipal library
of author John Steinbeck's home town of Salinas, California, until the 1990s)
and were even less thrilled that a film was being made of it.
The Associated Farmers of California called for a boycott of all 20th Century-Fox films
, and Steinbeck himself received death threats.
The film was one of the first to be voted onto the National Film Registry (1989).
Non-US audiences saw the film with a prologue which explained about the effects of the Depression
and the Oklahoma Dust Bowl. The studio later referred to this version as the "Cliff Notes Edition."
Darryl F. Zanuck paid $100,000 for the rights to John Steinbeck's novel -
a staggering amount of money at the time.
Steinbeck only allowed the rights to be sold under the proviso that the filmmakers
should show the material due reverence and treat the project responsibly.
When Darryl F. Zanuck suggested to John Ford that, to create an upbeat ending,
he use Ma Joad's "we're the people" monologue for a closing scene,
Ford told Zanuck to direct it himself - which he did.
John Ford was considered an odd choice for director as he was a staunch conservative
who would here be tackling a fairly political subject -
the treatment of the Okies. Ford surprised his critics by delivering probably his most sensitive film.
Although John Carradine hated John Ford's bullying style of direction,
he nevertheless made eleven films with him over a period of 28 years.
Ford was particularly keen on Carradine's unusual look.
Slightly more than halfway through the film, when the Joads pull over to fix a tire,
Ma sits on the front fender while Tom crawls under the car.
You can just barely hear him say, "Ma, get the hell off (the fender),"
which would have been against language codes for films in the era.
Although the script conformed to the provisions of the Production Code,
a number of potential "problems" had to be addressed.
The list of suggested alterations or eliminations included a warning
"not to characterize Muley as insane", the rewording of "certain of the lines
which have reference to Rosasharn's pregnancy" (in the book, Tom teases Rosasharn
and Connie with the line, "Well, I see you been busy"; in the film this is changed to,
"Well, I see I'm gonna be an uncle soon"), the removal of a "toilet gag about Grandma"
(early in the family's journey Rosasharn leads her out of a gas-station washroom, explaining,
"She went to sleep in there"), the elimination of "specific mention of Tulare County [California]"
and a request not to identify a town as "Pixley" (a town in Tulare County, CA,
notorious for its ill treatment of migrant workers).
It was also suggested that the film not show "Tom killing the deputy in self-defense".
Beulah Bondi was tested for the role of Ma Joad.
Bondi, believing that she had the part,
reportedly bought an old jalopy and moved to Bakersfield (CA) to live among the migrant workers
in order to research the role. Bondi was reportedly extremely disappointed at losing the role.
Producer Darryl F. Zanuck knew that Henry Fonda was desperate for the part of Tom Joad,
so he let it be known that he was going to offer the part to Tyrone Power.
Fonda pleaded with Zanuck for the part, and in order to get it
Zanuck talked him into signing an eight-picture deal with 20th Century-Fox.
In the book, John Steinbeck had the character of Casy parodying the song
"Yes Sir, That's My Baby" by singing "Yes sir, that's my Savior/Jesus is my Savior/Jesus is my Savior now."
The Motion Picture Production Code then in effect forbade use of the words
"God" and "Jesus" except when used "reverently", so the script resorted to having him hum:
"Mm-mmm, mmm, my Savior".
Henry Fonda currently holds the record for the longest gap between acting Oscar nominations.
His first nomination was for The Grapes of Wrath (1940) in 1940,
his second was for On Golden Pond (1981) in 1981, 41 years later.
He received one other Oscar nomination in the period between his two acting nominations,
that was for producer of 12 Angry Men (1957) in 1957.
The budget for the film was $750,000.
Woody Guthrie was an uncredited musical consultant for the film,
selecting "Goin' Down the Road Feelin' Dead" for use in the picture as a typical Okie song.
John Ford treated Dorris Bowdon quite badly.
It may have been because she was the girlfriend of screenwriter Nunnally Johnson
and was given the part by Darryl F. Zanuck, or it may simply have been one of Ford's
frequent unexplainable dislikes, but he hounded the young actress on every point,
from coming on the set with her hair improperly done to taking time to have her hair fixed.
Shortly before filming the scene of the dance at the government camp,
Jane Darwell expressed her nervousness to Bowdon about "being such a fat old lady
and I have to dance and say lines at the same time." When Darwell did the entire take perfectly,
Bowdon spontaneously broke into applause, launching a tirade from Ford that made her run
from the set crying.
The next shooting day, Ford rather awkwardly cheered her up with a little bawdy humor,
and the two got on well after that, although she later said,
"I was glad I never had to work with him again."
Yet, Bowdon in later life also expressed the duality of feelings actors often had
for the difficult director when she related a story about how he painstakingly talked
her through a very emotional moment that she ended up nailing in a single take.
"He was a superb director," she said. "I never saw another director work in a way that was as skilled."
According to Henry Fonda, John Ford preferred only one take and little or no rehearsal
to catch the most spontaneous moment.
For the key climactic final scene between Tom and Ma,
Ford didn't even watch the rehearsal.
When the time came to shoot, Ford led Fonda and Darwell through the silent action of the scene,
preventing them from starting their lines until the two actors were completely in the moment.
It was done in a single take and Fonda said on screen it was "brilliant."
Far from being a leftist with an interest in social problems,
John Ford decided to focus on the story purely through the Joad family as characters.
"I was sympathetic to people like the Joads, and contributed a lot of money to them,
but I was not interested in Grapes as a social study."
John Ford unmercifully chewed out Frank Darien for overemoting in the scene where Ma
is preparing a simple stew for the family
in front of a crowd of starving children in the migrant camp.
By the time Ford had finished his tirade, Darien was completely drained,
which proved to be exactly the take Ford wanted for the scene.
The film shot for seven weeks.
Unusual for John Ford, he allowed Darryl F. Zanuck to supervise the editing.
Indeed, Zanuck remains one of the very few producers to actually draw praise from the normally rather critical director.
James Stewart was originally set to play Al, with Walter Brennan as Pa Joad.
Darryl F. Zanuck was heavily involved in all aspects of the production,
as he saw it as a personal project.
In fact, so meticulous and carefully thought-through was his editing
of Nunnally Johnson's screenplay that Johnson himself praised Zanuck for his attention to detail.
One of two John Ford directed films to be nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Picture in 1940.
The other was The Long Voyage Home (1940).
Both lost out to Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca (1940).
In the crucial scene between Tom and Ma, Henry Fonda had to strike a match
whose light would illuminate Jane Darwell's sleeping face.
Gregg Toland rigged a tiny light in Fonda's palm to achieve the effect.
John Ford's chief source of irritation was his inability to embarrass or upset John Carradine.
According to Dorris Bowdon, Carradine had a huge ego, considered himself a great actor,
and was impervious to whatever Ford threw at him, although their antagonism
often produced perfect moments of performance and character.
2007: The American Film Institute ranked this as the #23 Greatest Movie of All Time.
With the death of Shirley Mills (Ruthie) on March 31, 2010,
Darryl Hickman (Winfield) is the last surviving cast member of the film.
The truck used in the movie is a 1926 Hudson "Super Six" - the same model as in the book.
2006: Ranked #7 on the American Film Institute's 100 Most Inspiring Movies of All Time.
A sequel was in the works at Fox the year after the film's release.
It was tentatively named after the first film's fake working title, "Highway 66".
Much of The Grapes of Wrath was shot on the Twentieth Century-Fox lot,
but second unit director Otto Brower took a crew to Oklahoma, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico,
following the route that the "Okies" had taken West.
Additional locations included Needles, Daggett and Tehachapi, California.
Brower and his crew filmed doubles in long shot to represent the Joad family members.
Reportedly this same unit paid five dollars apiece to carloads of people
actually making the trek to California to be filmed along with the Joad truck
as part of the film's fictional caravan of migrants.
Darryl F. Zanuck's interest in sound reportedly led him to send a sufficiently
loaded replica of the Joad truck to Oklahoma to record the grinding and shifting of gears.
Sound effects editor Robert Parrish insists the audio footage was never used,
and that Zanuck, thinking it was his requested sound of the truck that he heard in the rough cut,
approved the soundtrack and never knew the difference.
Dorris Bowdon (Rosasharn) was married to screenwriter Nunnally Johnson.
The first collaboration between John Ford and cinematographer Gregg Toland.
Louise Dresser was also considered for the part of Ma Joad.
Production began only four weeks after John Ford finished work on Drums Along the Mohawk (1939).
Because of this, most of the pre-production work was done for him ahead of time,
including the hiring of Gregg Toland as cinematographer,
who along with art directors Richard Day and Mark-Lee Kirk planned much of the look
of the film based on a vast array of research photos and documents.
Principal photography wrapped after 43 days.
Archived files indicate the area around Needles was used as a riverbank in the film,
Canejo Ranch stood in for the Keene ranch, the Irvine Ranch in Tustin
provided backdrops for a montage sequence, and Lasky Mesa,
in the San Fernando Valley near Chatsworth, was used for the Joad farm and for Muley's farm.
The real-life government-run Arvin Federal Government Camp near Bakersfield, California,
was also used for some shots of the fictional government camp in the movie
(e.g., the camp post office was used as the manager's office in the film).
Included among the "1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die", edited by Steven Schneider.
Reportedly, Darryl F. Zanuck was the one who had cricket chirps added to the soundtrack
during the scene in which Casy and his "radical" associates are camped near the river,
and he also is said to have insisted on the inclusion of a prominent accordion
part in the spare musical score because he considered it the most American instrument.
Although officially uncredited, sources list the accordion player as Danny Borzage,
brother of director Frank Borzage and a regular bit player in Ford's stock company
in a number of films between 1924 and 1964.
The novel's original ending was far too controversial to be even considered for a film in 1940.
It involved Rose-of-Sharon Rivers (Dorris Bowdon) giving birth to a stillborn baby
and then offering her milk-filled breasts to a starving man, dying in a barn
As Tom walks across the dance floor after saying goodbye to his mother his shadow goes to his left. When the point of view changes, the shadows are perpendicular to this, coming from behind his mother.
One of the cars (License plate 263 with the silver bed springs sticking out the back)
evacuating the Department of Agriculture camp site leaves the camp twice,
once before the Joads pack up and once after.
In the beginning of the movie Grandma Joad is sitting at the table eating
with a full set of teeth in her mouth.
Later when they stop to buy the bread Pa Joad explains to the waitress
that they need to soften the bread for Grandma to eat because she has no teeth.
When Pa Joad and Tom are talking about how they got some money to go on the trip,
poor Uncle John carries the bed spring out the door three times.
When the Joads pull over to fix a flat on their truck they stop in a small depression
that leans the truck to the left.
In the very next shot the truck is in a different spot and leaning to the right.
Tom Joad's semi-retarded brother, Noah, vanishes after the swimming-in-the-river sequence.
In the book, Noah believes he's a burden on the family and runs away.
In the film, no explanation is given for his disappearance.
The same shot, from slightly different angles, of the Joads'
truck crossing the desert at night is used twice, showing a single large cactus
in the foreground and three sets of lights in a row on a mountain in the distance.
When Casy and Tom are walking along the road towards the Joads' old farm,
their shadows can be seen on the painted backdrop behind them.
Also you can hear the reverberation caused by the film stage when they speak.
When the Joads set out from the gas station to cross the desert,
you see them pull away from the station twice.
20th Century Fox Studios - 10201 Pico Blvd., Century City, Los Angeles, California, USA (studio)
Backlot, 20th Century Fox Studios - 10201 Pico Blvd., Century City, Los Angeles, California, USA
Canejo Ranch, California, USA ("Keene Ranch")
Chatsworth, Los Angeles, California, USA
Daggett, California, USA (second unit)
Gallup, New Mexico, USA
Irvine Ranch, Tustin, California, USA
Iverson Ranch, Chatsworth, Los Angeles, California, USA
Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico, USA
Lamont, California, USA (Weedpatch Migrant Camp)
Lasky Mesa, Chatsworth, Los Angeles, California, USA (Joad and Graves farms)
Los Angeles, California, USA
McAlester, Oklahoma, USA(2nd unit)
Needles, California, USA(River bathing, "Welcome To Needles" sign, and Carty's Camp.)
New Mexico, USA
Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA
San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles, California, USA
Santa Rosa, New Mexico, USA(service station, diner, bridge, train sequence)
Sayre, Oklahoma, USA (Courthouse)
Tehachapi, California, USA (second unit)
Topock, Arizona, USA (bridge crossing into California)